The term “onychocryptosis” (ingrown toenail) is used to describe the podiatric problem linked to the penetration of the nail plate in the lateral nail board
This condition causes an injury on-site that manifests as pain from the pressure (usually with the footwear), or as a clear inflammation, or as reddening skin, or, in the most serious cases, as blood and pus flow with a consequent formation of a granuloma. This is because the penetration of the nail plate in the areas around the nail is considered by our body as an invasion of a foreign object that will arm the immune system.
50% of cases that determine onychocryptosis onset are due to a wrong cut of the nail; 20% of cases are due to an alteration of the nail matrix; 15% of cases are due to a trauma resulting from a constant contact with the footwear; 15% of cases due to biomechanical alteration of the big toe. In addition, the hyperhidrosis (excess sweating), dry skin or onychophosis (hyperkeratotic tissue that develops on the lateral or proximal nailfolds) but in particular the carelessness of the problem could lead to serious situations.
The treatment of onychocryptosis is based on the excision and consequent removal of the nail portion causing the injury, without using anesthetics. Subsequently, specific medication will be made by the patient himself combined with the support of the podiatrist to achieve complete healing and therefore restitutio ad integrum of the damaged tissue. If the nail was predisposed to onychocryptosis, it could be better going ahead with a nail rehabilitation (orthonixia). Using this method based on the application of nitinol strings, resin caps etc. the podiatrist will apply traction to the toenail to prevent it from injuring the periungual edge again.